Imagine you could stop, reverse or slow down ageing. What would it be like to have the energy of a 20-year-old in your 50s? Or to turn back the hormonal clock and thus reverse the menopause. What sounds like a dream is actually not so far away. Because scientists have actually studied a certain molecule and subsequently found an ageing elixir. The keyword is: NMN! We provide you with all the important information about this important molecule in this comprehensive article.
According to a 2018 study by Dr Satchidananda Panda on time-restricted eating, longevity has a lot to do with when you eat, not what you eat. There are processes in the body that are activated by diet, exercise, calorie restriction and intermittent fasting that simply make us healthier and subsequently live longer.
And this is where it gets even more interesting: Scientists have decoded much of the chemistry involved in the ageing process and are now using the molecule β-nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) to counteract this process. According to the experts, NMN, when combined with diet and exercise, works even better against ageing – and with very good tolerability.
If you are committed to anti-ageing therapy, it is quite possible that you are already following a diet and exercise programme and probably taking some supplements. Many people involved in anti-ageing now take NMN to supplement what they cannot get enough of naturally.
But what exactly is NMN and how is it related to ageing and life expectancy?
It happened about 20 years ago at M.I.T. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) when biology professor Leonard Guarente and a team of other scientists discovered the SIRT1 genes (sirtuins) in commercial yeast.
Sirtuins have a strong influence in ageing: seven of them are found in humans and five in yeast. Essentially, they protect all organisms on the planet, including humans, from decay and disease. They work in many cellular pathways that control cell death, turn anti-ageing genes on and off, help with DNA repair and regulate metabolism. SIRT 1 is one of the four longevity pathways.
When the expression of these genes in organisms was artificially increased, e.g. by additional gene copies, the life span of the organisms was extended by 5 to 20 percent. After this discovery, scientists began to stimulate the function of the sirtuins with the help of molecules. The two best-known molecules are NMN and resveratrol.
NMN is a derivative of vitamin B3 (niacin). It occurs naturally and can be obtained from foods such as fruit, milk and vegetables. In the body, NMN is used to form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a powerful and essential molecule found in every cell of the body. Believe it or not, when the NAD+ level in your body drops to zero, you are dead in about 30 seconds.
In addition, NAD+ plays a crucial role in the activation of sirtuins. Without NAD+, the SIRT1 genes cannot work and do their job of protecting our bodies from decay and disease.
Unfortunately, the NAD+ level decreases with age. When we are 50 years old, the NAD+ level in most of us is only half of what it was when we were 20. This decrease in NAD+ impairs the ability of SIRT1 to protect our bodies and slow down the ageing process.
Which foods contain NMN?
NMN is found in natural foods such as avocado, broccoli, cabbage and tomatoes. Unfortunately, however, in a very low concentration. To understand: To get a 1 mg NMN, you would have to eat about 1 kg of broccoli. It has been shown that the amount of NMN should be above 100 mg per dose to increase NAD+ levels in humans.
As you quickly realise: a person can never consume that much NMN per day through diet.
Is NMN better than NAD+?
For a long time, it was assumed that the NAD+ molecules were too large to be ingested directly and that they had to be produced with the help of a precursor such as NMN. Recently, however, it was discovered that NAD+ can cross the blood-brain barrier and reach the hypothalamus when taken sublingually.
It can directly increase NAD+ levels in the hypothalamus, which benefits the entire body as it controls metabolism. It may also be a possible supplement for people suffering from metabolic disorders due to a reduced level of NAD+ in the hypothalamus.
NMN, on the other hand, increases NAD+ levels in cells throughout the body and is a better supplement to increase overall NAD+ levels and slow aging.
Can NMN strengthen the immune system against the coronavirus?
According to clinical studies, NMN intake increases NAD+ levels to youthful levels. Providing the NAD+ molecule to the SIRT1 genes enhances their ability to protect the body from disease and decay. In more and more studies, researchers are finding that NAD+ also plays an important role in regulating our immune system.
In addition, studies have shown that NAD+ can trigger an immune system response to protect the body from a coronavirus. A review published on 23 March 2020 by the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences provides evidence that low NAD+ levels may be associated with higher severity and mortality rates in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Scientists have also found that macrophages (a type of white blood cell that eats potential invaders such as bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses) use a pathway synthesised by NAD+ to ensure cell survival and control inflammation.
All in all, the studies suggest that NMN and the resulting increased NAD+ levels may play an important role in fighting infections and bacteria. In other words: NMN has the potential to strengthen our immune system!
What is NMN generally good for?
It is almost, if not quite, impossible to discuss the benefits of NMN without addressing the longevity pathways. There are four main pathways of longevity that have been identified in organisms including humans:
- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) metabolism
- mTOR metabolism
- Sirtuin functions such as “guardian of the genome”.
- Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) signalling pathway
Each of these pathways, when activated, regulates lifespan and ageing. NMN works together with resveratrol through the SIRT1 pathway to stop or reverse the effects of ageing. The specific benefits of NMN in activating the body’s defences against ageing are described below.
NMN increases energy supply in ageing cells
Cells take in fuel and process it to perform their functions. As they age, they lose this ability and enter a state called cellular senescence or biological ageing, which is associated with other adverse effects.
Until now, it was assumed that NAD+, a key element of the cell’s fuel supply, is the only pathway through which NMN can contribute to cell energy. However, a groundbreaking study from Washington University School of Medicine, shows that NMN can be delivered directly into cells without conversion to NAD+.
This direct and faster delivery is possible with the help of a mysterious transporter protein called Slc12a8. Another interesting discovery is that Slc12a8 is automatically switched up by the cells when the NAD+ level drops.
This means that supplementing with NMN gives your cells a much faster way to refuel and promotes cell division and growth.
NMN helps fight metabolic diseases
As we age, diseases such as diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) become more common. They are caused by a reduction in the NAD+ level. NMN works through the restorative pathway to increase NAD+ levels to alleviate these and other metabolic diseases.
Imagine you are 90 and free of disease. You can literally walk around like a 50-year-old with your grandchildren! It is entirely possible to achieve this level of youthfulness with NMN supplements.
NMN reactivates stagnant blood flow
According to a 2018 study published in the journal Cell, blood flow was reactivated in ageing mice whose blood flow was impaired after taking NMN.
Dr David Sinclair and his team found that as the body ages, the number and functions of endothelial cells (ECs), which line blood vessels, decrease.
This capillary decline impairs the supply of nutrients and oxygen, the exchange of heat and the removal of waste products. If nothing is done to stop or reverse this loss, it accelerates the ageing process and with it age-related complications.
But all is not lost! The study found that NAD+ precursors such as NMN and nicotinamide riboside (NR) can help restore the ability of endothelial cells to form new blood vessels via the sirtuin pathway. This is another reason to increase NAD+ levels with NMN supplements!
Can NMN reverse the menopause?
Dr. Sinclair and his team initially focused their research on male subjects. However, when they started using NMN in post-menopausal female subjects, they noticed an interesting observation: they were able to reproduce longer. When they examined the eggs, they found that the DNA and chromosomes had normalised to the level of a younger egg, and they were able to reproduce again (in mouse expiration).
The research results suggest that NMN can slow down and possibly even reverse the menopause. This probably also has great potential as a non-invasive fertility treatment.
Does NMN also have side effects?
Scientists have researched NMN extensively. So far, there are no indications of negative side effects.
Dr David Sinclair, named one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine, has been taking NMN supplements for years with friends in the ageing industry. To date, he has not noticed any side effects except when NMN is stored in hot/warm temperatures. In this case, NMN is degraded to nicotinamide, which poisons the body. Therefore, it is very important that you store your NMN ideally in the refrigerator.
If you notice symptoms of reduced effectiveness of NMN, such as reduced sleep quality and memory, it might be beneficial to stop NMN for a week to give the body an occasional break.
Is NMN safe?
A human trial was recently conducted in Japan. The aim of the study was to determine whether taking NMN is safe. NMN was administered to 10 healthy men. Doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg NMN were administered. Single oral administration of NMN did not cause significant clinical symptoms or changes in key biomarkers such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and body temperature. The study helps to confirm that NMN is generally safe and well tolerated.
What is the recommended dose of NMN?
How much NMN should one supplement daily?
We recommend the following daily doses for NMN based on customer feedback depending on age.
- 30-40 years old: 200-400 mg/day
- 40-50 years old: 400-600 mg/day
- 50-60 years old: 600-800 mg/day
- Over 60 years old: 800-1200 mg/day
Another way to calculate the required NMN dose is to take your weight. Considering that 100 mg/kg/day NMN was able to attenuate most age-related physiological degradation processes in mice, an equivalent area dose for humans would be ~8 mg/kg/day.
For example: If you
- 50 kg, then multiply by 8 mg = 400 mg per day
- 60 kg, then multiply by 8 mg = 480 mg per day
- 70 kg, then multiply by 8 mg = 560 mg per day
- 80kg multiplied by 8 mg = 640 mg per day
- 90kg multiplied by 8 mg = 720 mg per day
- 100 kg multiplied by 8 mg = 800 mg per day
By the way:It is best to take NMN in the morning on an empty stomach.
Anti-Aging benefits of NMN
NMN is at the forefront of studies aimed at understanding and possibly reversing the ageing process. The role of NMN as a precursor of NAD+ is crucial for increasing longevity. Below are two more ways NMN combats the ageing process.
NMN suppresses age-related weight gain
People gain weight as they get older. A 2016 study found that fat mass decreased and lean mass increased in subjects receiving NMN. By taking NMN you can lose weight and build muscle.
NMN promotes energy metabolism
By mediating NAD+ synthesis, NMN helps to convert nutrients into energy, drive important cellular functions and reduce oxidative stress. These biochemical processes slow down the ageing process and may even be able to stop it altogether. NMN not only boosts your energy, but also helps repair your cells!
Why should one supplement NMN?
NMN plays a crucial role in the formation of NAD+. When we have high levels of NAD+ in our body, cellular energy increases, becoming the fuel of life, powering every organ and cell in our body and protecting us from DNA damage. NAD+ also activates the sirtuins, which contribute significantly to increasing our life expectancy and slowing down the ageing process.
Taking NMN directly increases the NAD+ content in our body, which counteracts the natural decline that occurs with age. Research has shown that taking NMN can raise NAD+ levels in older people to those of a 20-year-old!
How long does it take to notice the effects of taking NMN?
When supplemented, the NMN level in your body increases within minutes, while the NAD+ level is increased within 60 minutes. However, it generally takes a few weeks for the NAD+ to start rejuvenating your cells.
Most users report feeling younger and healthier within 2 to 3 weeks. The full effect of NMN is only noticeable after a few months of use.
Nobody wants to be 90 and frail. Being 90 but feeling like 50, on the other hand, is great!
Again and again we are told that ageing is an inevitable process and that we simply have to accept our weakening systems. But what if we told you that DNA damage, free radicals, oxidation and mutation processes that are touted as causes of ageing are largely false? What if we offered you an alternative by activating your longevity pathway that slows, stops or reverses the ageing process? Would you not use this possibility?
Taking NMN in conjunction with a healthy diet and lifestyle gives your system a fighting chance against ageing.
Studien zu NMN
Below you will find a selection of published studies dealing with NMN: